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Centos 部署nginx反向代理

2016-01-27 17:49 本站整理 浏览(12)
nginx有着优秀的代理性能,很多情况下,nginx常常被充当反向代理服务器负载后端应用web构建起一个高性能高可用的web集群(淘宝tengix ,京东的nginx集群都使用到了nginx反向代理功能),接下来给大家讲解Linux平台部署nginx反向代理实例。
【本文档所介绍的内容适用于公司测试/生产等常见的nginx反向代理应用】
一. 场景需求
现有两台server 需要通过nginx的反向代理功能实现后端web server(已安装好http服务)提供对外访问,即客户通过访问nginx进而访问到后端web server http应用
二 .应用拓扑架构
二. 部署步骤
【nginx 反向代理部署步骤】
1. nginx环境部署前准备:
1.1相关软件以及系统系统要求:Centos 6.0以上 (64位)相关中间件:Nginx: 1.6.0 以上(包含1.6.0)1.2相关系统依赖包安装检查准备1.2.1 检查系统自带httpd,mysql是否安装
# rpm -qa | grep nginx
如有安装,请使用以下命令卸载相关程序
# yum remove  nginx
2. 编译安装Nginx在正式编译httpd时,首先需要下载Nginx以及安装编译nginx需要的依赖包这里版本以1.6.3为例2.1安装编译nginx需要的依赖包(默认包放在/root目录下,包统一解压到/usr/local/src)
# yum install gcc openssl-devel pcre-devel zlib-devel -y
2.2下载nginx并添加运行nginx服务账号(默认包放在/root目录下,包统一解压到/usr/local/src)
# wgethttp://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.6.3.tar.gz 
# groupadd -r nginx 
# useradd -r -g nginx -s /bin/false -M nginx
2.3 编译安装nginx
# cd ~
# tar -zxf /root/nginx-1.6.3.tar.gz -C /usr/local/src
# cd /usr/local/src/nginx-1.6.3
# ./configure \
 --prefix=/usr/local/nginx \
 --sbin-path=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx \
 --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf  \
 --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log \
 --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log  \
 --pid-path=/var/run/nginx/nginx.pid  \
 --lock-path=/var/lock/nginx.lock \
 --user=nignx \
 --group=nginx \
 --with-http_ssl_module \
 --with-http_stub_status_module \
 --with-http_gunzip_module      \
 --with-http_gzip_static_module \
 --http-client-body-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/client/ \
 --http-proxy-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/proxy/ \
 --http-fastcgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/fastcgi/ \
 --http-uwsgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/uwsgi/ \
 --http-scgi-temp-path=/var/tmp/nginx/scgi/ \
 --with-pcre 
 # make && make install
2.4 创建nginx相关缓存存放的目录以及启动服务脚本
2.4.1 创建nginx相关缓存存放的目录
mkdir -p /var/tmp/nginx
2.4.2 创建nginx服务启动脚本并赋予执行权限
vim /etc/init.d/nginx
内容如下:
#!/bin/sh
#
# nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemin
#
# chkconfig:   - 85 15
# description:  Nginx is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \
#               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server
# processname: nginx
# config:      /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
# pidfile:     /usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid
# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
# Source networking configuration.
. /etc/sysconfig/network
# Check that networking is up.
[ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0
nginx="/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx"
prog=$(basename $nginx)
NGINX_CONF_FILE="/etc/nginx/nginx.conf"
lockfile=/var/lock/nginx.lock
start() {
   [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
   [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
   echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
   daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
   retval=$?
   echo
   [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
   return $retval
}
stop() {
   echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
   killproc $prog -QUIT
   retval=$?
   echo
   [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
   return $retval
}
restart() {
   configtest || return $?
   stop
   start
}
reload() {
   configtest || return $?
   echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
   killproc $nginx -HUP
   RETVAL=$?
   echo
}
force_reload() {
   restart
}
configtest() {
 $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
}
rh_status() {
   status $prog
}
rh_status_q() {
   rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1
}
case "$1" in
   start)
       rh_status_q && exit 0
       $1
       ;;
   stop)
       rh_status_q || exit 0
       $1
       ;;
   restart|configtest)
       $1
       ;;
   reload)
       rh_status_q || exit 7
       $1
       ;;
   force-reload)
       force_reload
       ;;
   status)
       rh_status
       ;;
   condrestart|try-restart)
       rh_status_q || exit 0
           ;;
   *)
       echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-
reload|configtest}"
       exit 2
esac
2.5 参考以下模板修改nginx主配置文件nginx.conf,如下所示
#user  nobody;
user nginx ;  
worker_processes  auto;   
#worker_cpu_affinity 00000001 00000010 00000100 00001000 
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535; 
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid; 

events {
    use epoll;  
    worker_connections  65535; 
    multi_accept   on
}

http {
    include       mime.types;
    include       /etc/nginx/web.conf;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
        #access_log  logs/access.log  main;  
       
#       {nginx global setting}            
        charset  utf-8;       
        server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;  
        client_header_buffer_size 1M;  
#       client_body_timeout 15; 
#       client_header_timeout 15;
#       send_timeout 15;    
        large_client_header_buffers 4 128k;  
        client_max_body_size 2000m; 
        
        sendfile on; 
        tcp_nopush on;  
        tcp_nodelay on; 
        keepalive_timeout 60; 
        reset_timedout_connection on; 
        
#       {fastcgi setting}                              
        fastcgi_cache_path /var/tmp/nginx/fastcgi_cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=TEST:10m 
        inactive=5m  max_size=10g;         
        fastcgi_connect_timeout 90;  
        fastcgi_send_timeout 60;      
        fastcgi_read_timeout 60;        
        fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;        
        fastcgi_buffers 8 128k;        
        fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;         
        fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;        
#       fastcgi_temp_path  /usr/local/nginx/ngx_fastcgi_tmp

#       {file setting}              
        open_file_cache max=204800 inactive=20s;        
        open_file_cache_valid 30s; 
        open_file_cache_min_uses 2;
#       open_file_cache_errors on;  

#       {gzip setting}
        gzip on;           
#       gzip_disable "msie6";         
        gzip_vary on;       
        gzip_proxied any;   
        gzip_comp_level 6;  
        gzip_min_length 1k;  
        gzip_buffers 16 8k;  
        gzip_http_version 1.1; 
        gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/xml 
        application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;   

#       {proxy setting}
        proxy_max_temp_file_size 0;
        proxy_connect_timeout      90;
        proxy_send_timeout         200;
        proxy_read_timeout         200;
        proxy_buffer_size          4k;
        proxy_buffers              4 32k;
        proxy_busy_buffers_size    64k;
        proxy_temp_file_write_size 64k;       
        
# 注:述上部分根据自己的需求来选择,如只需要nginx支持php解析,选择fastcgi那部分即可,如不需要对php解析支持,注释掉即可;如nginx单独作为反向代理server时,只选择proxy setting即可。 必要的部分有:gzip setting; file setting; nginx global setting    根据应用需求来选择就行

    #access_log  logs/access.log  main;

#    sendfile        on;
    #tcp_nopush     on;

    #keepalive_timeout  0;
#    keepalive_timeout  65;

    #gzip  on;

#    server {
#        listen       80;
#        server_name  localhost;

        #charset koi8-r;

        #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

#        location / {
#            root   html;
#            index  index.html index.htm;
#        }

        #error_page  404              /404.html;

        # redirect server error pages to the static page /50x.html
        #
#        error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
#        location = /50x.html {
#            root   html;
#        }

        # proxy the PHP scripts to Apache listening on 127.0.0.1:80
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    proxy_pass  http://127.0.0.1;         #}

        # pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on 127.0.0.1:9000
        #
        #location ~ \.php$ {
        #    root           html;
        #    fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
        #    fastcgi_index  index.php;
        #    fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  /scripts$fastcgi_script_name;
        #    include        fastcgi_params;
        #}

        # deny access to .htaccess files, if Apache's document root
        # concurs with nginx's one
        #
        #location ~ /\.ht {
        #    deny  all;
        #}
#    }

    # another virtual host using mix of IP-, name-, and port-based configuration
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       8000;
    #    listen       somename:8080;
    #    server_name  somename  alias  another.alias;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

    # HTTPS server
    #
    #server {
    #    listen       443 ssl;
    #    server_name  localhost;

    #    ssl_certificate      cert.pem;
    #    ssl_certificate_key  cert.key;

    #    ssl_session_cache    shared:SSL:1m;
    #    ssl_session_timeout  5m;

    #    ssl_ciphers  HIGH:!aNULL:!MD5;
    #    ssl_prefer_server_ciphers  on;

    #    location / {
    #        root   html;
    #        index  index.html index.htm;
    #    }
    #}

}
2.6 新建一个web站点模板(vim /etc/nginx/web.conf)配置反向代理,内容如下:
server {
        listen       80 default backlog=65535;
        server_name localhost;
        root    /usr/local/www;
        index  index.php index.html ;
       
#       {nginx proxy configure}
        location / {
                 proxy_pass        http://192.168.100.10  # //这里填写后端web server 访问地址(本文档中后                 端web server应用访问URL信息为:http://192.168.100.10)
                 
                 proxy_redirect     off;
                 proxy_set_header   Host             $host;
                 proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP        $remote_addr;
                 proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
                 proxy_next_upstream error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_502 http_503
                 http_504;
        }

#        {fastcgi configure}   
#        location ~ \.php$ {
#                   fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
#                   fastcgi_index  index.php;
#                   fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(.*)$;
#                   fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
#                   fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
#                   include        fastcgi_params;
#                  fastcgi_cache cache;
#                   fastcgi_cache_valid 200 302 1h;
#                   fastcgi_cache_valid any 1m;
#                   fastcgi_cache_min_uses 1;
#                   fastcgi_cache_use_stale error timeout invalid_header http_500 http_503 http_404;
#                   fastcgi_cache_key "$request_method://$host$request_uri";
#        }

}
注:述上注释的部分根据自己的需求来选择,如需要nginx支持php解析,去掉注释即可
2.7 检查nginx配置是否正确并启动nginx服务
2.7.1检查nginx配置文件是否有问题
# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t 如出现以下信息说明配置无误
nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful
2.7.2 启动nginx服务并加入开机自启动服务中
# chmod o=rwx /etc/init.d/nginx    //赋予ngin启动脚本执行权限
# service nginx start 
# chkconfig --add nginx
# chkconfig --level 2345 nginx on
到这里nginx proxy server部署就完成了
3. 验证
首先要知道nginx侦听的是80端口,后端webserver业务应用访问主页为Apache主页,所以如果nginx代理成功的,输入:http://proxy server的IP 访问应该是后端web server(即Apache的页面),如下所示(本文档中serverIP为:192.168.100.11):

若代理失败应该nginx报502错误:“bad gateway”!
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