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LNMP环境搭建——Nginx篇

2015-08-08 13:00 本站整理 浏览(389)

1.Nginx配置文件测试
root@kallen:/usr/local/nginx/sbin# nginx -t 
 nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf  syntax is ok 
 nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

2.Nginx启动
[root@kallen ~]# /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

3.Nginx负载均衡
Nginx Architecture:

Nginx LoadBalance:

Nginx High Availability:

Nginx Access Process:

Nginx 的 upstream 目前支持4 种方式的分配——
(1)轮询(默认) :
每个请求按时间顺序逐一分配到不同的后端服务器,如果后端服务器down掉,能自动剔除。
(2)weight :
指定轮询几率,weight 和访问比率成正比,用于后端服务器性能不均的情况。
(3)ip_hash :
每个请求按访问ip 的hash 结果分配,这样每个访客固定访问一个后端服务器,可以解决session 的问题。可以针对同一个C 类地址段中的客户端选择同一个后端服务器,除非那个后端服务器宕了才会换一个。
(4)fair(第三方):
按后端服务器的响应时间来分配请求,响应时间短的优先分配。
(5)url_hash(第三方):
按访问url 的hash 结果来分配请求,使每个url 定向到同一个后端服务器,后端服务器为缓存时比较有效。
4.Nginx安装及配置
(1) nginx源码安装
[root@kallen ~]# cd /usr/local/src/

[root@kallen ~]# wgethttp://syslab.comsenz.com/downloads/linux/nginx-0.9.6.tar.gz [root@kallen ~]# tar zxvf nginx-0.9.6.tar.gz
[root@kallen ~]# cd nginx-0.9.6

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx 
--sbin-path=/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx 
--conf-path=/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf 
--error-log-path=/usr/local/nginx/logs/error.log 
--http-log-path=/usr/local/nginx/logs/access.log 
--pid-path=/usr/local/nginx/var/nginx.pid 
--lock-path=/usr/local/nginx/var/nginx.lock 
--http-client-body-temp-path=/dev/shm/nginx_temp/client_body 
--http-proxy-temp-path=/dev/shm/nginx_temp/proxy 
--http-fastcgi-temp-path=/dev/shm/nginx_temp/fastcgi 
--user=www --group=www 
--with-cpu-opt=pentium4F 
--without-select_module 
--without-poll_module 
--with-http_realip_module 
--with-http_sub_module 
--with-http_gzip_static_module 
--with-http_stub_status_module 
--without-http_ssi_module 
--without-http_userid_module 
--without-http_geo_module 
--without-http_memcached_module 
--without-http_map_module 
--without-mail_pop3_module 
--without-mail_imap_module 
--without-mail_smtp_module 
--with-pcre=/usr/local/src/pcre-8.32/ 
--with-zlib=/usr/local/zlib

[root@kallen ~]# make && make install 
[root@kallen ~]# mkdir /dev/shm/nginx_temp

有的nginx版本编译时会因为pcre编译不过去,需要修改一下
--with-pcre=/usr/local/src/pcre-8.32,前提是已经下载了pcre源码包pcre-7.8.tar.gz,并解压到/usr/local/src/pcre-8.32,不需要编译pcre.
在实际安装过程中可能需要手动安装以下依赖包:
a. 安装依赖软件
[root@kallen ~]# apt-get --install-suggests install gcc g++ make

b. 下载相关软件
wgethttp://jaist.dl.sourceforge.net/project/pcre/pcre/8.35/pcre-8.35.tar.gz wgethttp://zlib.net/zlib-1.2.8.tar.gz wgethttp://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-1.0.1g.tar.gz wgethttp://www.canonware.com/download/jemalloc/jemalloc-3.6.0.tar.bz2 wgethttp://tengine.taobao.org/download/tengine-2.0.2.tar.gz[/code] 
c. 安装Pcre
tar zxvf pcre-8.35.tar.gz
  cd pcre-8.35
 ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/pcre-8.35
  make && make install

d. 安装Zlib
tar zxvf zlib-1.2.8.tar.gz
  cd zlib-1.2.8
  ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/zlib-1.2.8
  make && make install

[ERROR]-1:
./configure: error: the HTTP gzip module requires the zlib library. 
You can either disable the module by using --without-http_gzip_module 
option, or install the zlib library into the system, or build the zlib library 
statically from the source with nginx by using --with-zlib=<path> option

[ERROR]-2:
configure: error: You need a C++ compiler for C++ support.
make[1]: *** [/usr/local/src/pcre-8.32/Makefile] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory /home/kallen/MyDOC/nginx-1.8.0
make: *** [build] Error 2

安装完成后的配置信息如下:
[Nginx Configuration Summary]
Configuration summary
+ using PCRE library: /usr/local/src/pcre-8.32
+ OpenSSL library is not used
+ using builtin md5 code
+ sha1 library is not found
+ using zlib library: /usr/local/zlib
  nginx path prefix:"/usr/local/nginx"
  nginx binary file:"/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx"
  nginx configuration prefix:"/usr/local/nginx/conf"
  nginx configuration file:"/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
  nginx pid file:"/usr/local/nginx/var/nginx.pid"
  nginx error log file:"/usr/local/nginx/logs/error.log"
  nginx http access log file:"/usr/local/nginx/logs/access.log"
  nginx http client request body temporary files:"/dev/shm/nginx_temp/client_body"
  nginx http proxy temporary files:"/dev/shm/nginx_temp/proxy"
  nginx http fastcgi temporary files:"/dev/shm/nginx_temp/fastcgi"
  nginx http uwsgi temporary files:"uwsgi_temp"
  nginx http scgi temporary files:"scgi_temp"

(2) 编写nginx启动脚本
[root@kallen init.d]# vi /etc/init.d/nginx

写入以下内容:
#!/bin/bash
#        
# Startup script for the Nginx HTTP Server
#
# Kallen Ding, Apr 23 2015

NGINX_PATH="/usr/local/nginx/"
OPTIONS="-c ${NGINX_PATH}conf/nginx.conf"
prog=nginx
nginx=${NGINX_PATH}sbin/nginx
pidfile=/var/run/nginx.pid

# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions

start() {
    echo -n "Starting $prog: "
    daemon --pidfile=${pidfile} $nginx $OPTIONS
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    return $RETVAL
}

stop() {
    echo -n "Stopping $prog: "
    killproc -p ${pidfile} $nginx
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}
reload() {
    echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
    killproc -p ${pidfile} $nginx -HUP
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
}

# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
  start)
    start
    ;;
  stop)
    stop
    ;;
  restart)
    stop
    start
    ;;
  reload)
        reload
    ;;
  status)
    status $prog
    RETVAL=$?
    ;;
  *)
    echo "Usage: $prog {start|stop|restart|reload|status}"
    RETVAL=3
esac

exit $RETVAL

保存后,更改/etc/init.d/nginx的权限
[root@kallen ~]# chmod 755 /etc/init.d/nginx
[root@kallen ~]# chkconfig --add nginx
[root@kallen ~]# chkconfig nginx on

】文中所有图片均来自Nginx官网.
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